|Posted on March 6, 2007 at 1:44 AM|
Bed and breakfast accommodation has a long history. For centuries travelers were staying not only in all kinds of inn but in private houses for the night. Nowadays the tradition is still alive and the bed and breakfast is flourishing in many countries all over the world.
Bed and breakfast means that a family is providing travelers with a room for the night in their own private house. In the morning the guests are provided with the breakfast as one can see it from the name. The breakfast is included in the cost.
The conditions of stay and the variants of breakfast vary according to many different factors. In the morning guests can be served either a so-called American breakfast consisting of beacon and eggs . In different areas family may follow some national or local breakfast traditions. In fact every single family can have it's own breakfast habits.
Stuff of the bed and breakfast are usually the members of the family. The accommodation business can be the main business of the housekeeper or an additional one. Unlike the city hotels the amount of bed and breakfast guests can increase tremendously in the heat of the summer season or during some holidays and almost come to naught during the winter season.
By the way this is the reason that a traveler who is planning to stay at a bed and breakfast should care about the reserving of place before the trip. One should mind that a private house which the bed and breakfast is can accommodate the number of guest usually limited with one dozen or something about that.
Bed and breakfast accommodation can offered not for one night only, but sometimes the you will be supposed to stay away the most part of the day.
Most of those bed and breakfast are located in the mid of the
attractive natural areas or along popular tourist routs. The houses
often have that cozy old traditional look .
Most bed and breakfast all over the world are listed and reported about in the Global Net and in different tourist guides.
Bed and breakfast accommodation has one general advantage - you pay only once. The tax.,local telephone calls, parking, video library and etc - all is included in the general cost. No permanent tipping or overvalued prices for the goods and servises. And plus the housekeeper will give you some advice about where to go, where to eat, where to buy or can even assist you in satisfying some of your needs - either it'll be renting a car or an early breakfast.
Dallas (pronounced /ˈd�ləs/) is the third-largest (as estimated by the United States Census Bureau on 1 July 2006) city in the state of Texas and the ninth-largest in the United States. The city covers 385 square miles (997 km�) and is the county seat of Dallas County. As of July 1, 2006, U.S. Census estimates put central Dallas at a population of over 1.2 million
Dallas was founded in 1841 and formally incorporated as a city on 2 February 1856. The city's economy is primarily based on the petroleum industry, telecommunications, computer technology, banking, and transportation. It is the core of the largest inland metropolitan area in the United States and lacks any navigable link to the sea�Dallas's prominence despite this comes from its historical importance as a center for the oil and cotton industries, its position along numerous railroad lines, and a strong industrial and financial sector.
Dallas is currently the third most popular destination for business travel, and the Dallas Convention Center,
in downtown Dallas, is one of the largest and busiest convention
centers in the country, at over 1 million square feet, and the world's
largest singular column-free exhibit hall.
Before Texas was claimed in the 16th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain by the Spanish Empire, the Dallas area was inhabited by the Caddo Native Americans. Later, France also claimed the area, but in 1819 the Adams-On�s Treaty made the Red River the northern boundary of New Spain, officially placing Dallas well within Spanish territory. The area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain and the area became part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, the Republic of Texas broke off from Mexico to become an independent nation.In 1839, four years into the Republic's existence, Warren Angus Ferris surveyed the area around present-day Dallas. He shot the bears, poisoned the wolves, chased off the natives, and made the area safe for John N. Bryan to "found" the city of Dallas in 1841. In 1846 the Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States and Dallas County was established. It is strongly debated whether the City of Dallas, Texas is named after the U.S. Vice President, George Mifflin Dallas.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 385 square miles (997.1 km�)�342.5 square miles (887.1 km�) of it is land and 42.5 square miles (110.1 km�) of it (11.03%) is water. Dallas makes up one-fifth of the much larger urbanized area known as the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex�about a quarter of all Texans live in the Dallas/Fort Worth/Arlington metropolitan area.
Dallas shares the same latitude with Nagasaki, Japan.
Dallas, and its surrounding area, is mostly flat and lies at an elevation ranging from 450 feet (137 m) to 550 feet (168 m). The western edge of the Austin chalk formation, a limestone escarpment, rises 200 feet (61 m) and runs roughly north-south through Dallas County The uplift is particularly noticeable in the neighborhood of Oak Cliff and the adjacent cities of Cockrell Hill, Cedar Hill, Grand Prairie, and Irving. Marked variations in terrain are also found in cities immediately to the west in Tarrant County surrounding Fort Worth
The Trinity River is a major Texas waterway that passes from the city of Irving into west Dallas, where it is paralleled by Interstate 35E along the Stemmons Corridor, then flows alongside western downtown, and through and alongside south Dallas and Pleasant Grove, paralleled by Interstate 45, where it exits into unincorporated Dallas County and heads southeast to Houston. The river is flanked on both sides by 50 feet (15 m) tall earthen levees to protect the city from floods. The river has been treated much like a drainage ditch throughout Dallas's history, but as Dallas began shifting towards a postindustrial society, public outcry about a lack of aesthetic and recreational use for the river ultimately gave way to the Trinity River Project. The project, which began in the early 2000s and is scheduled to reach completion in the 2010s, will result in lakes, new park facilities and trails, and transportation improvements.
As a result, the Trinity River project area will reach for over 20 miles in length within the city and the overall geographical land area addressed by the Trinity River Land Use Plan is approximately 44,000 acres in size � about 20% of the land area in Dallas. Parks and the natural Great Trinity Forest will together encompass approximately 10,000 acres, making it one of the largest and diverse urban parks in the world.
White Rock Lake is Dallas's other significant water feature. The lake and surrounding park is a popular destination among boaters, rowers, joggers, and bikers in the Lakewood/Casa Linda Estates neighborhoods of east Dallas. The 66-acre (267,000 m�) Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden lies on the lake's eastern shore. Bachman Lake, just northwest of Love Field, is a smaller lake and park also used for recreation. Lake Ray Hubbard, a 22,745-acre (92 km�) lake, is a vast and popular recreational lake located in an extension of Dallas surrounded by Garland, Rowlett, Rockwall, and Sunnyvale. Mountain Creek Lake is a small lake along Dallas's border with Grand Prairie and is home to the (defunct as of September 1998) Naval Air Station Dallas (Hensley Field). North Lake, a small lake in an extension of Dallas surrounded by Irving and Coppell, served primarily as a water source for a nearby power plant, but the surrounding area is now being targeted for redevelopment due to its proximity to Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (a plan that the neighboring cities oppose)
Dallas has a humid subtropical climate, yet this part of Texas also tends to receive warm, dry winds from the north and west in the summer. Winters are generally mild, with typical daytime highs between 50 �F (10 �C) and 65 �F (18 �C) and nighttime lows between 30 �F (−1 �C) and 50 �F (10 �C). However, strong cold fronts known as "Blue Northers" sometimes pass through Dallas, plummeting nightly lows below 30 �F (−1 �C). Snowfall is seen on average 2-4.5 days out of the year and snow accumulation is typically seen at least once every winter. A couple of times each year, warm and humid air from the south overrides cold, dry air, leading to freezing rain, which often causes major disruptions in the city if the roads and highways become dangerously slick. On the other hand, daytime highs above 65 �F (18 �C) are also not unusual during the winter season. In sum, extremes in weather are more readily seen in Dallas and Texas as a whole than along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, due to the state's location in the middle of the U.S.
Spring and autumn bring pleasant weather to the area. Vibrant wildflowers (such as the bluebonnet, Indian paintbrush and other flora) bloom in spring and are planted around the highways throughout Texas. Springtime weather can be quite volatile, but temperatures themselves are generally mild. The weather in Dallas is also pleasant between late September and early November, and unlike springtime, major storms rarely form in the area.
In the spring, cool fronts moving from Canada collide with warm, humid air streaming in from the Gulf Coast. When these fronts meet over northern and central Texas, severe thunder storms are generated with spectacular lightning shows, occasional torrents of rain, hail, and at times, tornadoes. Over time, tornadoes are perhaps the biggest threat to the city. Dallas was hit by a powerful tornado on 2 April 1957, The tornado would have likely been an F3. On March 28, 2000, the �Fort Worth Tornado� had an impact upon Dallas's neighbor Fort Worth's downtown, and a tornado in Arlington, Texas also happened that day damaging some homes. Even though Dallas lies at the lower end of the "Tornado Alley", that day had the worst tornadoes to happen to the metroplex in the last 50 years.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture places the city of Dallas in Plant Hardiness Zone 8a. Dallas has the 12th worst ozone air pollution in the nation according to the American Lung Association, ranking it behind Los Angeles and Houston. Much of the air pollution in Dallas, and the DFW Metroplex in general, comes from a hazardous materials incineration plant in the southern-most suburb of Midlothian, as well as concrete installations in neighboring Ellis County. Another major contributor to air pollution is exhaust from automobiles. Due to Dallas's spread out nature and high amount of urban sprawl, automobiles are the only available mode of transportation for many. All time recorded high is 113 �F, and all time recorded low is -2 �F.
The average daily low in Dallas is 57 �F (14 �C) and the average daily high in Dallas is 77 �F (25 �C). Dallas receives approximately 37.1 inches (942.3 mm) of rain per year, much of which is delivered in the spring or summer.
Dallas's skyline contains several buildings over 700 feet (210 m) in height and the city is considered the fifteenth-tallest city on earth.
Most of the notable architecture in Dallas is modernist and postmodernist. Iconic examples of modernist architecture include I. M. Pei's Fountain Place, the Bank of America Plaza, Renaissance Tower, and Reunion Tower. Examples of postmodernist architecture include the JPMorgan Chase Tower and Comerica Bank Tower. Several smaller structures are fashioned in the Gothic Revival (Kirby Building) and neoclassical (Davis and Wilson Buildings) styles. One architectural �hotbed� in the city is a stretch of homes along Swiss Avenue, which contains all shades and variants of architecture from Victorian to neoclassical.
As a result of the Trinity River Project, Dallas is also seeing construction of a series of bridges designed by Santiago Calatrava. The first one being built the Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge will reach a height of over 40 stories above the river basin.
Major areas in the city include:
Central Dallas is anchored by Downtown, the center of the city and the epicenter of urban revival, coupled with Oak Lawn and Uptown Dallas, new urbanist areas anchored by dense retail, restaurants, and nightlife. Downtown Dallas has a variety of neighborhoods, including the West End Historic District, the Arts District, the Main Street District, Farmers Market District, the City Center business district, the Convention Center District, the Reunion District and Victory Park. North of downtown is Oak Lawn, a densely-populated area that contains parks along Turtle Creek and the popular Uptown area with LoMac, Cityplace and the West Village.
The east side of Dallas contains the community of East Dallas, home to Deep Ellum, a trendy arts area close to downtown, homey Lakewood, the historic Vickery Place, Bryan Place, and historically and architecturally significant homes on Swiss Avenue. Above the Park Cities is north Dallas, home to mansions as palatial as Versailles in Preston Hollow, strong middle and upper-class communities north into Bent Tree and Far North Dallas, and high-powered shopping at Galleria Dallas, NorthPark Center, and Preston Center. East of north Dallas and north of east Dallas is Lake Highlands, one of the most unified middle-class areas in the city, with the strongest definition�it is in the northeastern part of the city above White Rock Lake and east Dallas.
The southern portion of Dallas is home to Oak Cliff, a hilly area in southwest Dallas that is predominantly Hispanic and includes entertainment districts such as the Bishop Arts District. South Oak Cliff became a predominantly African American district after the early 1970s and has struggled with high rates of poverty and crime. To the east, south Dallas lays claim to the Cedars, an eclectic artist hotbed south of downtown, Fair Park, and areas west of the Trinity River and east of Interstate 35E. The University of North Texas at Dallas, currently located south of Oak Cliff along Interstate 20, is being built in the area along Houston School Road. Further east, above (north and east of) the Trinity River, is Pleasant Grove�once an independent city, it is a predominantly black collection of neighborhoods stretching to Seagoville to the southeast.See also: List of neighborhoods in Dallas, Texas
Politically, Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area is the third most liberal of the Texas metropolitan areas (after Austin and El Paso), (in contrast 54% of Houston and San Antonio voters and an even higher percentage of rural Texan voters are conservative). Nonetheless, Dallas is also a high profile center of conservative Protestant Christianity and is home to several renowned seminaries and influential megachurches. The political environment is also solidly pro-business. The Dallas TV series helped to solidify a number of Dallas stereotypes including wealthy oil barons, women with big hair, and businessmen wearing cowboy hats.
Present-day Dallas as a singular entity can be seen as fairly moderate to liberal, with conservative Republicans dominating the upper-middle class suburban neighborhoods of North Dallas and liberal Democrats dominating neighborhoods closer to Downtown as well as the city's southern sector. As a continuation of its suburban northern neighborhoods, Dallas's northern suburbs are overwhelmingly conservative. Plano, the largest of these suburbs, was ranked as the fifth most conservative city in America by The Bay Area Center for Voting Research, based on the voting patterns of middle-age adults. However, the city of Dallas (excluding its suburbs) generally votes for Democratic political candidates in local, state, and national elections. In the 2004 Presidential elections, over 75% of Dallas voters voted for John Kerry over George W. Bush, making the city the 32nd most liberal city in the United States by sheer percentages and more liberal than traditionally left-leaning cities such as Los Angeles, Milwaukee, and Cincinnati. The county as a whole was split evenly, with 50% of voters voting for Bush and 49% voting for Kerry. In the 2006 elections for Dallas County judges, 41 out of 42 seats went to Democrats.
In 2004, Lupe Valdez was elected Sheriff of Dallas County the first Hispanic, first woman, and first open lesbian ever to fill that role. She is currently one of only two female sheriffs in the state of Texas., the other being Sheriff Rosanna Abreo of Bastrop County.
In 2007, conservative Republican Tom Leppert defeated Ed Oakley by a margin of 58% to 42% to become the Mayor of Dallas. Oakley, a liberal Democrat, would have become the first openly gay mayor of a major U.S. city had he been elected. The city's elections are officially non-partisan.
Dallas is renowned for barbecue, authentic Mexican, and Tex-Mex cuisine. Famous products of the Dallas culinary scene include the frozen margarita and the restaurants La Calle Doce, Sonny Bryan's Smokehouse, Enchilada's, Mi Cocina, Bone Daddy's Barbecue, and The Mansion on Turtle Creek. The French Room at the Hotel Adolphus in downtown Dallas was named the best hotel restaurant in the US by Zagat. Several nationally ranked steak and chop houses can be found in the Dallas area including Bob's Steak & Chop House which is currently ranked #3 according to the USDA Prime Steakhouses chart, behind Ruth's Chris Times Square and Bones Atlanta. On average, Dallasites eat out about four times every week, which is the third highest rate in the country, behind Houston and Austin, and Dallas has more restaurants per capita than New York City.
The Arts District in downtown is home to several arts venues, both existing and proposed. Notable venues in the district include the Dallas Museum of Art, the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center, The Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, the Nasher Sculpture Center,The Dallas Contemporary, The Dallas Children's Theatre. Venues under construction or planned include the Winspear Opera House and the Dallas Center for the Performing Arts. The district is also home to DISD's Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts, which is currently being expanded.
Deep Ellum originally became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime jazz and blues hotspot in the south.Artists such as Blind Lemon Jefferson, Robert Johnson, Huddie �Leadbelly� Ledbetter, and Bessie Smith played in original Deep Ellum clubs such as The Harlem and The Palace. Today, Deep Ellum is home to hundreds of artists who live in lofts and operate in studios throughout the district alongside bars, pubs, and concert venues. One major art infusion in the area is the city's lax stance on graffiti; consequently, several public ways including tunnels, sides of buildings, sidewalks, and streets are covered in murals. One major example, the Good-Latimer tunnel, was torn down in late 2006 to accommodate the construction of a light rail line through the site.
The Cedars has a growing population of studio artists and an expanding roster of entertainment venues. The area's art scene began to grow in the early 2000s with the opening of Southside on Lamar, a Sears warehouse converted into lofts, studios, and retail. Current attractions include Gilley's Dallas and Poor David's Pub. Entrepreneur Mark Cuban purchased land along Lamar Avenue near Cedars Station in September 2005 and locals speculate that he is planning an entertainment complex for the site.
The Bishop Arts District in Oak Cliff is home to a number of studio artists living in converted warehouses. Walls of buildings along alleyways and streets are painted with murals and the surrounding streets contain many eclectic restaurants and shops.
Dallas has an Office of Cultural Affairs as a department of the city government. The City of Dallas Office of Cultural Affairs is responsible for six cultural centers located throughout the city, funding for local artists and theatres, public art projects and running the city owned radio station WRR.
Dallas is home to the Dallas Desperados (Arena Football League), Dallas Mavericks (National Basketball Association), and Dallas Stars (National Hockey League). All three teams play at the American Airlines Center. The Major League Soccer team FC Dallas, formerly the Dallas Burn, used to play in the Cotton Bowl but moved to Pizza Hut Park in Frisco upon the stadium's opening in 2005. However, the college Cotton Bowl football game is still played at the stadium. The Dallas Sidekicks, a former team of the Major Indoor Soccer League, used to play in Reunion Arena. The Texas Tornado, three-time defending champions of the North American Hockey League, plays at the Deja Blue Arena in Frisco.
Nearby Irving is home to the Dallas Cowboys of the National Football League while Arlington is home to the Texas Rangers of Major League Baseball. By 2009, the Dallas Cowboys will be located in Arlington at a new facility.
Other teams in the Dallas area include the Dallas Harlequins of the USA Rugby Super League, the Frisco RoughRiders of Minor League Baseball in Frisco, and the Grand Prairie AirHogs minor league baseball team.The Dallas Diamonds, the two-time national champions of the Women's Professional Football League Women's American football team, plays in North Richland Hills.McKinney is home to the Dallas Revolution, an Independent Women's Football League Women's American football team.
Cricket is another sport that is popular among diaspora from South Asian countries. Local universities such as SMU and UT-Dallas have their own cricket clubs that are affiliated with USA Cricket.
The City of Dallas maintains and operates 406 parks on 21,000 acres (85 km�) of parkland. Its flagship park is the 260-acre (1.05 km�) Fair Park which was originally developed to host the Texas Centennial Exposition in 1936. The city is also home to Texas's first and largest zoo at 95 acres (0.38 km�) � the Dallas Zoo, which opened in 1888.
The city's parks contain 17 separate lakes, including White Rock and Bachman lakes, spanning a total of 4,400 acres (17.81 km�). The city is traversed by 61.6 miles (99.1 km) of bike & jogging trails, including the Katy Trail, and is home to 47 community and neighborhood recreation centers, 276 sports fields, 60 swimming pools, 232 playgrounds, 173 basketball courts, 112 volleyball courts, 126 play slabs, 258 neighborhood tennis courts, 258 picnic areas, six 18-hole golf courses, two driving ranges, and 477 athletic fields.